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16. aprila 1944

16. aprila 1944

16. aprila 1944

Aprila 1944

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Vojna na morju

Nemške podmornice U-550 so potonile pri New Yorku

Vzhodna fronta

Sovjetske čete so zavzele Jalto



Osvoboditev taborišča ujetnikov Stalag XIB / 357 Fallingbostel 16. aprila 1945

V kompleksu taborišč za vojne ujetnike v Fallingbostelu je bilo nameščenih 1000 zapornikov iz Velike Britanije in drugih držav. Sestavljalo ga je več ločenih taborišč in je bilo v uporabi od leta 1939 do osvoboditve 16. aprila 1945.

Prvi Britanci so prišli po Dunkirku leta 1940, nekateri pa so preživeli pet let v tem ali drugih taboriščih- položaj, znan kot "v vreči"#8217. V muzeju stražarjev je dnevnik vojnih ujetnikov iz bataljonske garde prvega bataljona narednika G Alderja, ki je bil ujet leta 1940, drugega pa iz grenadirske garde Anthonyja H Grahama, ujetega v Anziu leta 1944. Veliko število zapornikov v zraku je prispelo, potem ko so jih septembra 1944 ujeli v Arnhemu, in takrat je bilo taborišče že prenatrpano. Med temi zaporniki je bil RSM John C Lord, nekdanji grenadirski stražar. Postal je legendarna osebnost zaradi discipline in reda, ki ga je obnovil v taborišču, kar je dalo mnogim moškim, ki so se odrekli občutku namena.

RSM John Lord (spredaj levo) kmalu po osvoboditvi

Razmere so bile na splošno sprejemljive, glavni sovražnik tistih, ki so bili sicer zdravi, pa je bil dolgčas in težave z duševnim zdravjem, ki so bile posledica pomanjkanja svobode. Vendar je do leta 1945 priliv zapornikov iz bitke pri Bulgeu in razpad nemškega sistema oskrbe prinesel pomanjkanje hrane in nastanitve.

Za večino delovno sposobnih zapornikov se je stanje poslabšalo aprila, ko so jih odpeljali na 200 km dolgo peš pot v groznem vremenu z malo hrane ali zavetja. Poleg odvzema v usodnem obratu usode so jih napadli borci RAF Typhoon, ki so jih zamenjali za nemške čete. Sčasoma so se njihovi stražarji raztopili in v začetku maja so vzpostavili stik z britanskimi četami.

Medtem je v taboriščih propadlo nemško vodstvo in zaporniki so upravljali stvari. Ko so britanski tanki 8. in 11. husarjev 16. aprila prispeli v XI B, jih je srečala pametno izkazana skupina, ki jo je vodil RSM Lord. Še slabše je bilo pri 357, ki je imelo veliko bolnih moških.

Britanski vojaki prispejo v taborišča Ujetniki praznujejo svojo osvoboditev

Ujetniki so se morali zadovoljiti, dokler niso prispeli zaloge in transport, prav tako pa so morali vzdrževati red na sosednjem območju, pri čemer so mesto in taborišča nekoč zaščitili pred divjanjem sovjetskih zapornikov. Britanski zaporniki so taborišče zapustili proti koncu aprila in se odpravili domov.

Zanimivo je, da nekateri od njih morda niso bili zadnjič, ko so videli Fallingbostel. V času hladne vojne je bilo območje glavno britansko oporišče in gardistični polki so večkrat prišli skozi.


Ruski tovornjaki se premikajo proti Berlinu. Končni napad. Vstop v brlog sovražnega sovražnika. Rusinja je lepa.

Zadnje poglavje v uničenju Hitlerjevega tretjega rajha se je začelo 16. aprila 1945, ko je Stalin sprožil brutalno moč 20 vojsk, 6300 tankov in 8 500 letal, da bi premagal nemški odpor in zavzel Berlin. Po predhodnem dogovoru so zavezniške vojske (postavljene približno 60 milj zahodno) ustavile napredovanje proti mestu, da bi Sovjetom dale proste roke. Izčrpane nemške sile so postavile trdno obrambo, ki je sprva odbijala napadalne Ruse, a na koncu podlegle silni sili. Do 24. aprila je sovjetska vojska obkrožila mesto in počasi zaostrila svoje preostale nacistične zagovornike. V boju proti ulici od ulice do hiše in od hiše do hiše so ruske čete napadle pot proti Hitlerjevi kanclerji v središču mesta.

Hitler je v svojem podzemnem bunkerju živel v svetu domišljije, ko se je njegov "Tisočletni rajh" zrušil nad njim. V zadnjih urah se je Fuehrer poročil s svojo dolgoletno ljubico in se ji nato pridružil v samomoru. Tretji rajh je bil mrtev.

VIDEO: MLADI NEMČKI VOJNCI NA ODERSKI Fronti 1945 čakajo na rusko žrtev





Vir: Eyewitnesstohistory


Berlinčani, ki so bili izčrpani zaradi kratkih obrokov in stresa, so imeli na božič leta 1944. le malo praznovanja. Razpoloženje v Nemčiji se je natanko dve leti prej spremenilo. Govorice so začele krožiti tik pred božičem 1942, da je Rdeča armada ob Volgi obkrožila šesto armado generala Paulusa. Nacistični režim je težko priznal, da je bila največja formacija v celotnem Wehrmachtu obsojena na uničenje v ruševinah Stalingrada in v zamrznjeni stepi zunaj. Za pripravo države na slabe novice je Joseph Goebbels, reichsminister za propagando in razsvetljenstvo, napovedal "nemški božič", ki je v nacionalsocialističnem smislu pomenil strogost in ideološko odločnost, ne sveč in borovih vencev in petja "
Heilige Nachf '
. Do leta 1944 je tradicionalna pečena gos postala daleč spomin.

Sovjetski vojaki nalagajo rakete Katyusha z več cevmi. Ruska taktika je bila jasna. Razstrelite vse, kar vam pride na pot.

Dorothea von Schwanenfluegel je bila devetindvajsetletna žena in mati, ki je živela v Berlinu. Z mlado hčerko sta se skupaj s prijatelji in sosedi stiskala v stanovanjski hiši, ko se je bližal konec. Mesto je bilo že v ruševinah zaradi zavezniških letalskih napadov, hrane je bilo malo, razmere so bile obupne - edino upanje, da bodo zavezniki prispeli pred Rusi. Pridružujemo se Dorotejinemu računu, ko Rusi začnejo zadnjo pot do zmage:


"V petek, 20. aprila, je bil Hitlerjev šestinpetdeseti rojstni dan, Sovjeti pa so mu poslali rojstnodnevno darilo v obliki topniškega udara v središče mesta, medtem ko so se zahodni zavezniki pridružili velikemu zračnemu napadu.

Radio je sporočil, da je Hitler prišel iz svojega varnega bunkerja, zaščitenega pred bombami, da bi se pogovarjal s štirinajstimi do šestnajstletnimi fanti, ki so se "prostovoljno javili" za "čast" sprejeti v SS in umreti za svojega Fuhrerja v obrambi iz Berlina. Kakšna kruta laž! Ti fantje niso prostovoljno sodelovali, vendar niso imeli izbire, ker so fantje, ki so jih našli v skrivanju, SS obesili kot izdajalce v opozorilo, da je "tisti, ki ni bil dovolj pogumen za boj, moral umreti." Ko dreves ni bilo na voljo, so ljudi nanizali na stebre svetilk. Povsod so viseli, vojaški in civilni, moški in ženske, navadni državljani, ki jih je usmrtila majhna skupina fanatikov. Zdelo se je, da nacisti ne želijo, da bi ljudje preživeli, ker smo za izgubo vojne po svoji logiki očitno krivi vsi. Nismo se dovolj žrtvovali, zato smo izgubili pravico do življenja, saj je bila samo vlada brez krivde. Volkssturm je bil ponovno vpoklican in tokrat so se morali prijaviti vsi fantje, stari od trinajst let, saj se je naša vojska zdaj zmanjšala na malo več kot na otroke, ki so polnili vojaške vrste. "

V osebnem življenju in v obstoju naroda je vladalo vsesplošno vzdušje bližajočega se propada. Ljudje so svoj denar porabili nepremišljeno, ob pol domnevi, da bo kmalu ničvreden. Bilo je zgodb, čeprav jih je težko potrditi, o dekletih in mladih ženskah, ki so se družili z neznanci v temnih kotičkih okoli postaje Zoo in v Tiergartenu. Želja po opustitvi nedolžnosti naj bi postala še bolj obupna pozneje, ko se je Rdeča armada približala Berlinu.


RAČUN ZA OČITNIK (nadaljevanje)

Srečanje z mladim vojakom

"Sovjeti so se borili z nemškimi vojaki in ubirali civiliste od ulice do ulice, dokler nismo slišali eksplozij in streljanja s puško v naši neposredni bližini. Ko se je hrup približal, smo lahko slišali celo grozljivo grleno kričanje sovjetskih vojakov, ki nam je zvenelo kot razjarjene živali. Streli so nam razbili okna in na našem vrtu so eksplodirale granate, nenadoma so bili Sovjeti na naši ulici. Pretreseni zaradi bitke okoli nas in odreveneli od strahu smo iz majhnih oken kleti, obrnjenih proti ulici, opazovali tanke in pripeljal se je neskončen konvoj vojakov.

To je bil grozljiv prizor, ko so sedeli visoko na tankih s sproženimi puškami, ko so hodili mimo. Kričeče ženske z orožjem so bile najhujše. Polovica vojakov je imela okrog nog samo krpe in drobtine, drugi pa so nosili čevlje SS, ki so jih izropali iz osvojene vojašnice SS v Lichterfeldeju. Več bežajočih ljudi nam je prej povedalo, da so nenehno opazovali različne škornje mimo oken svoje kleti. Ponoči so Nemci v naših vojaških čevljih ponovno zavzeli ulico, ki so jo Sovjeti v čevljih SS zavzeli podnevi. Čevlji in glasovi so jim povedali, kdo je kdo. Zdaj smo jih videli na lastne oči in pripadali so divjim kohortam napredujočih sovjetskih čet.

Soočanje z resničnostjo je bilo desetkrat slabše kot samo slišati o tem. Vso noč smo se stiskali skupaj v smrtnem strahu, ne da bi vedeli, kaj bi lahko prineslo jutro. Kljub temu smo se brezšumno prikradli gor, da bi dvakrat preverili, ali so naša težka lesena okna še vedno nedotaknjena in ali so vsa zunanja vrata zabarikadirana. Toda ko sem dosegel vrhunec, kaj sem videl! Nosilec v stanovanjski hiši poleg našega je stal na svojem dvorišču in mahal Sovjetom. Naš sum, da so bili komunisti, je imel torej ves čas prav, vendar so morali biti pri sebi, da so tako odprto razglasili svoje bratstvo.
Kot je bilo pričakovati, se je tisto noč horda sovjetskih vojakov vrnila in vdrla v njihovo stanovanjsko hišo. Potem smo slišali, kar je zvenelo kot grozna orgija, v kateri so ženske kričale na pomoč, mnoge so hkrati kričale. Lopar me je najezil. Nekateri Sovjeti so tepli po našem vrtu in z udarci udarili po naših vratih, da bi vdrli. Hvala bogu, da so naša trdna lesena vrata zdržala njihov trud. Ujeti v strahu smo sedeli v omamljeni tišini v upanju, da bomo dali vtis, da je to prazna hiša, a brezupno predana v kremplje dolgotrajne Rdeče armade. Naši živci so bili na drobce. "



"Naslednje jutro smo si ženske prizadevale, da bi bile za Sovjete čim manj privlačne, tako da smo obraz namazale s premogovim prahom in pokrile glave s starimi krpami, našo ličenje za Ivana. Skupaj smo se zbrale v osrednjem delu v kleti, ki se je tresla od strahu, medtem ko so nekateri pokukali skozi nizka kletna okna, da bi videli, kaj se dogaja na ulici, ki jo nadzoruje Sovjetska zveza. Počutili smo se ohlapne ob pogledu na te luskave Mongolce, ki so bili videti divji in zastrašujoči. Na razvalini čez cesto od objavljena so bila prva sovjetska naročila, vključno s policijsko uro. Nenadoma se je zunaj zaslišal hud hrup. Zgroženi smo opazovali, kako so sovjeti rušili vogalno trgovino z živili in vrgli njeno vsebino, police in pohištvo na ulico. Nujno so bile potrebne vreče moke, sladkor in riž sta bila razcepljena in sta vsebino razlila po golem pločniku, medtem ko so sovjetski vojaki s puškami stražili, da si nihče ne bi drznil dvigniti nujno potrebne hrane. kar neverjetno. Ponoči je nekaj obupanih ljudi poskušalo rešiti del razlite hrane iz žleba. Lakota je zdaj postala glavna skrb, ker so bile naše obroke ničvredne in niso upale na zaloge.

Kmalu zatem je zunaj spet prišlo do nemira, še hujšega kot prej, in odhiteli smo do razglednika, da bi videli, da so Sovjeti vdrli v banko in jo oropali. Prišli so ven in veselo vpili s polnimi rokami nemških bankovcev in nakita iz odprtih sefov. Hvala bogu, da smo denar že dvignili in ga imeli doma. "

"Naslednji dan je general Wilding, poveljnik nemških čet v Berlinu, končno predal celotno mesto sovjetski vojski. Ni bilo radia ali časopisa, zato so se po ulicah vozili kombiji z zvočniki, ki so nam ukazali, naj prenehamo z vsakim uporom. Nenadoma , streljanje in bombardiranje sta se ustavila in nerealna tišina je pomenila, da je bila ena preizkušnja za nas končana, druga pa se je kmalu začela. Naša nočna mora je postala resničnost. Celih tristo kvadratnih kilometrov tistega, kar je ostalo od Berlina, je bilo zdaj popolnoma pod nadzorom Rdeča armada. Zadnji dnevi divjih bojev od hiše do hiše in uličnih bojev so bili človeški pokol, pri čemer na obeh straneh niso zajeli nobenega zapornika. Ti zadnji dnevi so bili pekel. Naši zadnji preostali in izčrpani vojaki, predvsem otroci in starci, padel v zapor. Bili smo mesto v ruševinah, skoraj nobena hiša ni ostala nedotaknjena. "


Vir: Eyewitnesstohistory.com

To je bila neusmiljena bitka. V Hermersdorfu, jugozahodno od Neuhardenberga, je sovjetska pehota napredovala mimo T-34, ki je še gorel iz panzerfausta. Nemški vojak v bližnji luknji je kričal na pomoč. Granata, ki je padla v luknjo, mu je odletela z nog in ni imel moči, da bi se izvlekel. Toda vojaki Rdeče armade so ga kljub njegovim krikom pustili v maščevanju za požgano posadko.

Nemški zaporniki, poslani proti zadnjemu delu, so bili navdušeni nad neskončnimi kolonami tankov, samohodnih pušk in drugih goseničnih vozil, ki so se premikala naprej. "In to je vojska," so mislili nekateri, "ki naj bi leta 1941 nazadnje zadihala." Sovjetski pehoti, ki so prišli na drugo stran ceste, bi jih pozdravili z vzkliki "Gitler kapuuutt!" Eden od nemških ujetnikov je bil prepričan, da so med njimi številni mrtvi "sovjetski vojaki, ki so jih zdrobili njihovi tanki". Videl je tudi ruske vojake, ki so preizkušali nekaj ujetih panzerfaustov, tako da so jih streljali ob steno napol porušene hiše. Drugi so s svojih mrtvih slekli plašče, v eni vasi pa je videl nekaj vojakov, ki so streljali na gnezdeče štorklje. Ciljanje vaje se je zdelo kompulzivno tudi po bitki. Nekateri zaporniki, ki so jih odpeljali na veličastni shloss v Neuhardenberg, so bili zaskrbljeni, ko je njihovo spremstvo, ko je opazilo "vrhunski lestenec", dvignilo strojnico in nanjo streljalo. Višji častnik ga je opomnil, "vendar se je zdelo, da to ne daje vtisa".

Skupine Feldgendarmerie in SS so nadaljevale iskanje dezerterjev. O izvršenih usmrtitvah ob cesti niso vodili nobenih zapisov, vendar anekdotični dokazi kažejo, da so bili na sektorju XI SS korpusa mnogi, vključno s številnimi Hitlerjevo mladino, obešeni na drevesnega sina, kar je bil najmanjši dokaz. To ni bilo nič drugega kot umor. Sovjetski viri trdijo, da je bilo 25.000 nemških vojakov in častnikov na hitro pogubljenih zaradi strahopetnosti leta 1945. Ta številka je skoraj zagotovo previsoka, vendar verjetno ni bila manjša od 10.000.

Boj proti zadnjim ostankom nemškega upora v berlinski podzemni železnici

19. april je bil še en lep pomladni dan, ki je sovjetskemu letalstvu omogočil popolno vidljivost. Vsakič, ko so prišli Šturmoviki, premetavali in bombardirali, se je cesta izpraznila, ko so se ljudje vrgli v jarke. Ženske in dekleta iz bližnjih vasi, prestrašeni Rdeče armade, so prosili skupine vojakov, naj jih vzamejo s seboj: 'Nehmt uns mit, nehmt uns bitte, bitte mit!'


Ostanki pripravniških in častniških bataljonov iz korpusa CI so se umaknili "vas po vas" zahodno do Bernaua, severno od Berlina. Večina je izgubila skoraj tri četrtine moči. Bili so izčrpani, lačni in popolnoma zmedeni. Takoj, ko so se ustavili za počitek, so vsi močno zaspali in njihovi častniki so jih morali večkrat prebuditi, ko je bilo treba iti naprej. Nihče ni vedel, kaj se dogaja na obeh straneh ali celo spredaj ali zadaj. Radijski sprejemniki in

terenski telefoni so bili opuščeni. Prav tako ni bilo upanja, da bi ponovno vzpostavili učinkovito frontno črto, kljub najboljšemu prizadevanju bolj izkušenih častnikov, ki so pograbili kakršne koli lovce iz drugih enot in jih vključili v svoje malo poveljstvo

Petek, 20. april, je bil četrti lep dan zapored. To je bil šestinpetdeseti rojstni dan Adolfa Hitlerja. Lep dan na ta datum je med tujci na ulici spodbujal pozdrave o "Führerjevem vremenu" in čudežu, ki je to pomenil. Zdaj so lahko samo najbolj obremenjeni nacisti še namignili na Hitlerjevo nadnaravno moč. Še vedno je bilo dovolj mrtvih, da bi poskušali proslaviti dogodek. Na uničenih stavbah so bile dvignjene nacistične zastave in razglašeni plakati, "Die Kriegsstadt Berlin grüst den Führer!"

Ujeti delavci zloglasnega ministrstva za propagando


Hitler je generalu Krebsu naročil, naj z zahoda Berlina izvede napad na vojske Koneva, da bi preprečil obkrožanje. Sile, ki naj bi "vrgle nazaj" 3. in 4. gardijsko tankovsko vojsko, so sestavljale
Oddelek Friedricha Ludwiga Jahna, sestavljen iz fantov iz odredov delovne službe Reicha, in tako imenovana "tankovska formacija Wünsdorf", serija pol ducata tankov iz tamkajšnje šole za usposabljanje. Ta dan je bil na območje Strausberg poslan policijski bataljon "ujeti dezerterje in jih usmrtiti ter ustreliti vse vojake, ki se umaknejo brez ukazov". Toda tudi tisti, ki so podrobno opisani kot krvniki, so na poti naprej začeli dezertirati. Eden od tistih, ki so se predali Rusom, je svojemu sovjetskemu izpraševalcu povedal, da se je "približno 40.000 dezerterjev skrivalo v Berlinu še pred ruskim napredovanjem. Zdaj se to število hitro povečuje. ' Nadaljeval je, da policija in Gestapo ne moreta nadzorovati razmer.

Intenzivno topniško bombardiranje Berlina se je začelo ob 9.30, nekaj ur po koncu zadnjega zavezniškega zračnega napada. Hitlerjev ađutant SS, Otto Günsche, je poročal, da se je Führer nekaj minut po tem, ko so ga zbudili, pojavil neobrit in jezen na hodniku bunkerja, ki je služil kot predsoba. 'Kaj se dogaja?' je zavpil na Genero Burgdorf, polkovnika von Under in Günscheja. "Od kod prihaja to streljanje?" Je Burgdorf odgovoril, da je osrednji Berlin pod strelom sovjetskega težkega topništva. "So Rusi že tako blizu?" je vprašal Hitler, očitno pretresen.

Reichstag slika mračen videz. Morda je to simboliziralo stanje Nemčije potem

Od tistega jutra do 2. maja so morali v napadu na mesto izstreliti 1,8 milijona granat. Žrtve med ženskami so bile zlasti velike, saj so še vedno čakale v vrsti v deževnem dežju v upanju na svoje "krizne obroke". Poškodovana telesa so premetavali po Hermannplatzinu v jugozahodnem Berlinu, ko so ljudje čakali v vrsti pred veleblagovnico Karstadt. Mnogi drugi so bili ubiti v vrstah pri vodnih črpalkah. Prečkanje ulice se je iz enega negotovega zavetišča v drugega spremenilo v pomišljaj. Večina je obupala in se vrnila v svoje kleti. Nekateri pa so izkoristili zadnjo priložnost, da so na svojem vrtu ali bližnji parceli zakopali srebro in druge dragocenosti. Toda neusmiljeno bombardiranje in naključni padci granat so kmalu prisilili večino prebivalstva nazaj v podzemlje.

Stranske ceste in glavne poti so bili obremenjeni s civilisti z ročnimi vozički, otroškimi vozički in skupinami domačih konj. Vojake so obkrožali civilisti, obupani zaradi novic o napredovanju sovražnika, vendar sami pogosto niso imeli jasne predstave. Piketi Feldgendarmerie na vsakem razpotju so znova zagrabili lovce, da bi ustanovili podjetja. Na cestnih drevesih so viseli tudi moški s kartonom na prsih z napisom: »Bil sem strahopetec.« Največ sreče so imeli vojaki, poslani v obrambo hiš na obeh straneh ceste. Prebivalci so jim dali hrano in nekaj tople vode za britje in umivanje, prvi več dni.

Ruski častniki v Reichstagu

Morda je bil stranski učinek tega zakona, ki povezuje smrt s spolno zrelostjo, zaradi prihoda sovražnika na rob mesta mlade vojake obupati, da bodo izgubili nedolžnost. Dekleta, ki se dobro zavedajo velikega tveganja posilstva, so se raje najprej predala skoraj vsakemu nemškemu dečku kot pijanemu in verjetno nasilnemu sovjetskemu vojaku. V radiodifuznem centru Grossdeutscher Rundfunk na Masurenalleeju sta bili dve tretjini 500-članskega osebja mlade ženske-veliko malo več kot osemnajst. Tam se je v zadnjem tednu aprila razširil 'pravi občutek razpada', ki ga je med kupom zvočnega arhiva močno pilo in se je neselektivno kopuliralo. Veliko je bilo tudi spolne aktivnosti med ljudmi različnih starosti v neosvetljenih kleteh in bunkerjih. Afrodiziaklen učinek smrtne nevarnosti je komaj neznan zgodovinski pojav.

Berlinčani so svoje mesto zdaj imenovali "Reichsscheiterhaufen" - "pogrebna plošča Reicha". Civilisti so že utrpeli žrtve v uličnih spopadih in čiščenju hiš. Kapetan Ratenko, častnik iz Tule v 2. gardijski tankovski vojski Bogdanova, je potrkal na vrata kleti v Reinickendorfu, okrožju na severozahodu. Nihče ga ni odprl, zato ga je udaril noter. Slišal je rafal streljanja iz strojnice in bil je ubit. Vojaki iz 2. gardijske tankovske vojske, ki so bili z njim, so začeli streljati skozi vrata in okna. Ubili so strelca, očitno mladega častnika Wehrmachta v civilu, pa tudi žensko in otroka. "Stavbo so nato obkrožili naši možje in požgali," je zapisano v poročilu.

Samo fantje. Morda iz Hitlerjeve mladosti. To so bili borci, ki so branili Hitlerja v njegovih zadnjih dneh. Žalostno.


Serova je morda najbolj presenetilo stanje obrambe Berlina. „V območju od deset do petnajst kilometrov okoli Berlina niso našli resne trajne obrambe. Obstajajo požarni jarki in jame, avtoceste pa so minirane na določenih odsekih. Ko prideš v mesto, je nekaj jarkov, a v resnici manj kot katero koli drugo mesto, ki ga je vzela Rdeča armada. ' Zasliševanja moških iz Volkssturma so razkrila, kako malo je bilo v mestu rednih vojakov, kako malo je bilo streliva in kako se je Volkssturm nerad boril. Serov je odkril tudi, da je nemška protiletalska obramba skoraj prenehala delovati, kar je letalstvu Rdeče armade omogočilo jasen prelet mesta.

Predal se je zadnji nemški borec. Pištole so v Berlinu utihnile


Civilne žrtve so bile že velike. Tako kot napoleonska pehota so tudi ženske, ki so stale v vrsti za hrano, preprosto zgrnile, potem ko je rafalo uničilo čakalno vrsto. Nihče si ni upal izgubiti svojega mesta. Nekateri so trdili, da so ženske samo izbrisale kri s svojih obrokov in jo iztisnile. "Tam stojijo kot stene," je zapisala ženska, "ki so se ne tako dolgo nazaj zaletele v bunkerje, ko so tri osrednja Nemčija napovedali tri lovska letala." Ženske so v vrsti čakale na maslo in suho

klobase, medtem ko so se moški pojavili le, da bi se postavili na vrsto za izdajo šnapsa. Zdelo se je simbolično. Ženske so bile zaskrbljene zaradi neposrednosti preživetja, medtem ko so moški morali pobegniti pred posledicami svoje vojne.



16. april 1947: Eksplozija ladje vžge 3-dnevni dež ognja in smrti

Če želite obnoviti ta članek, obiščite Moj profil in nato Oglejte si shranjene zgodbe.

Če želite obnoviti ta članek, obiščite Moj profil in nato Oglejte si shranjene zgodbe.

__1947: __ Tovorna ladja eksplodira ob pristanišču v Texas Cityju v Teksasu. V eksploziji in požarih, ki sledijo, je umrlo približno 600 ljudi, 3500 pa jih je ranjenih. Šest desetletij kasneje ostaja najsmrtonosnejša eksplozija in najhujša industrijska katastrofa v zgodovini ZDA.

The Grandcamp, ladja Liberty iz druge svetovne vojne, ki je bila preoblikovana v francosko trgovsko plovilo, je prevzela tovor gnojila iz amonijevega nitrata na pomolu poleg kompleksa kemičnih tovarn, pisarn in laboratorijev Monsanto. Ladjski mizar je 16. aprila okoli 8. ure zjutraj zavohal dim v skladišču št. 4 in ugotovil, da gori nekaj vreč gnojil. Poskusil ga je preliti z nekaj vedrov vode, nato pa z gasilnim aparatom.

Ko je poklical cev, je kapitan ladje to prepovedal, v strahu, da bi voda uničila 500 tolarjev vrednega ognja. Poveljnik je ukazal zapreti skladišče in odpreti njegove protipožarne ventile za sproščanje pare. Običajno je to dobra ideja, v tem primeru pa ne.

Amonijev nitrat se razgradi pri približno 350 stopinjah Fahrenheita. Ogenj je narasel. Kapitan je svoji posadki ukazal, naj zapusti ladjo.

Texas City je imel majhno gasilsko enoto. Le 36 ur pred požarom je soustanovitelj Nacionalne pomorske unije James Gavin članom sindikata v New Yorku povedal, da je Texas City nevaren in da je "naravni" za katastrofalno eksplozijo.

Gasilci so poskušali razpršiti gorečo ladjo s pomola. Gledalci, vključno s šolarji, so se množice zbrali ob obali, da bi si ogledali dogajanje. Slaba ideja.

The Grandcamp je eksplodiralo ob 9.12. Eksplodirano verjetno je preveč blaga beseda.

Kapitan in 32 Grandcamp10 posadk, ki jih je umrlo 10, je nekako preživelo. Na pomolu je bilo ubitih več kot 200 ljudi. Eksplozijo je bilo slišati 160 kilometrov stran. Razbila je vsa okna v Texas Cityju in polovico tistih v Galvestonu, 10 milj stran.

Nekateri odpadki so dosegli nadmorsko višino skoraj 3 milje, preden so padli nazaj na zemljo. Težka gelera sta razletela dve letali, ki krožita nad glavo. En tonski kos ladijske propelerske gredi je pristal 2,5 milje stran. Drugi kosi so pluli 5 milj.

Eksplozija je izravnala 20 blokov ob obali in 12 blokov v notranjosti. Ognjeni ostanki so vžgali rezervoarje za nafto, plin in kemikalije v velikem kompleksu Monsanto in treh bližnjih naftnih družbah.

Ljudje so povsod umirali, razstreljeni zaradi eksplozije, obglavljeni zaradi leteče kovine, razrezani zaradi padajočega stekla, požgani zaradi goreče kovine in kemikalij, zdrobljeni zaradi padajočih zgradb. Litanija smrti je bila dolga in raznolika. Več tisoč jih je utrpelo poškodb.

Gasilci in reševalci so prihiteli iz bližnjih mest, Rdeči križ pa je sprožil velik nacionalni odziv, vendar so to bili dnevi pred potniškimi in tovornimi letali. Lokalne oblasti so postavile začasne mrtvačnice in študente medicine prisilile v dežurstvo v preobremenjenih urgencah.

Požari so še naprej goreli na dokih, tankih in po vsem mestu. A groze še ni bilo konec.

Tovorna ladja Highflyer, ki je bil privezan v bližini Grandcamp, zagorelo zjutraj po eksploziji. Ko se je zdelo, da ogenj uhaja izpod nadzora, so poklicali vlačilce, da ladjo vlečejo iz pristanišča, da ne bi eksplodiral tudi njen tovor gnojila.

Na žalost je moč Grandcamp eksplozija je zaklenila Highflyer v smrtonosni objem z drugo ladjo, Wilson B. Keene, in Highflyer ne bi popustil. Vlačilci so obupali.

The Highflyer razstrelili in tudi porušili Keene, ter dež smrt in ogenj na novo v Texas Cityju. Udarni val in novi požari so ubili več sto ljudi.


Pismo ministrstva za informiranje iz leta 1944 dokazuje lažno propagando holokavsta, namenjeno prikrivanju resničnih boljševiških vojnih zločinov

29. februarja 1944 je britansko ministrstvo za informacije izdalo pismo British Broadcasting Company (BBC) skupaj z visokimi člani britanske duhovščine, v katerem je pozvalo te skupine, naj sodelujejo z organizirano propagandno kampanjo, namenjeno odvračanju pozornosti britanske in ameriške javnosti od morilska dejanja, ki jih je storila približujoča se ruska boljševiška vojska z obtožbo Nemcev za veliko bolj pošastne zločine proti človeštvu:

Gospod,

Ministrstvo mi je naročilo, naj vam pošljem naslednje okrožno pismo:

Pogosto je dolžnost dobrih državljanov in pobožnih kristjanov, da zaprejo oči pred posebnostmi tistih, ki so z nami povezani.

Toda prišel je čas, ko je treba te posebnosti, ki so v javnosti še vedno zanikane, upoštevati, ko je potrebno naše ukrepanje.

Metode vladanja boljševiškega diktatorja v Rusiji [Stalinu] poznamo na primer iz pisanj in govorov samega predsednika vlade v zadnjih dvajsetih letih. Vemo, kako se je Rdeča armada obnašala na Poljskem leta 1920, na Finskem, v Estoniji, Latviji, Galiciji in Besarabiji šele pred kratkim.

Zato moramo upoštevati kako se bo Rdeča armada zagotovo obnašala, ko bo prevzela Srednjo Evropo. Če ne bodo sprejeti previdnostni ukrepi, bodo očitno neizogibne grozote, ki bodo nastale, neprimerno obremenile javno mnenje v tej državi.

Boljševikov ne moremo reformirati, lahko pa storimo vse, da jih rešimo - in sebe - pred posledicami njihovih dejanj. Razkritja zadnjih četrt stoletja bo preprosto zanikanje prepričljivo. Edina alternativa zanikanju je odvračanje pozornosti javnosti od celotne teme.

Izkušnje so to pokazale najboljša motnja je propaganda grozodejstev, usmerjena proti sovražniku. Na žalost je javnost niso več tako dovzetni kot v časih "tovarne trupel", "pohabljenih belgijskih dojenčkov" in "križanih Kanadčanov".”

Zato si iskreno prizadevate za vaše sodelovanje da bi odvrnili pozornost javnosti od dejanj Rdeče armade s svojo iskreno podporo različnim obtožbam proti Nemcem in Japoncem, ki jih je ministrstvo dalo in jih bo dalo v obtok.

Vaše izražanje prepričanja v take lahko prepriča druge.

Jaz sem, vaš poslušni služabnik,

(podpisano) H. HEWET, POMOČNI SEKRETAR

Ministrstvo v zvezi s tem sporočilom ne sme vzpostaviti nobene korespondence, ki bi jo morali razkriti samo odgovornim osebam.

V bistvu to pismo zahteva, da BBC in britanske cerkve sklenejo zaroto, da bi Nemce lažno obtožili grozljivih vojnih grozodejstev in ‘ zločinov proti človeštvu ’, da bi zaščitili javni ugled svojih zaveznikov, krvoločnih ‘Ruski & #8217 Boljševiki (mnogi med njimi so bili res etnični Judje), ko so med nemškim umikom posiljevali, ropali in ubijali svojo pot proti zahodu po Evropi.

Pismo dokazuje, da je bila načrtovana propagandna kampanja ‘Holokavst ’ veliko pred koncem vojne, in zagotovo dolgo preden so zavezniki odprli koncentracijska taborišča in videli domnevne ‘ dokaze ’ nemških ‘ grozodejstev ’.

Victor Cavendish-Bentick, vodja britanskega izvršnega odbora za psihološko vojno (Propaganda), je v ročno napisanem zapisku, napisanem 27. avgusta 1943, potrdil, da je bil domnevni množični umor Judov v tako imenovanih taboriščih smrti#8217 psihiatričen. -opa, ko je napisal / a:

S to zgodbo o plinski komori smo imeli dober uspeh za svoj denar, a ne tvegajmo, da bomo sčasoma izvedeni in ko bomo izvedeli, da se bo laž zrušila s seboj uničiti celotno psihološko vojno? Torej ni pravi čas, da pustimo, da se odmakne in se osredotoči na druge proge, ki jih izvajamo. " [Dokument urada za javne evidence F0371/34551, ki ga je razkril Stephen Mitford Goodson, Znotraj južnoafriške rezervne banke]

In takoj po vojni je Bruno Baum, judovsko-komunistični predsednik Vzhodne Nemčije in nekdanji zapornik v Auschwitzu, v svojih spominih iz leta 1949 priznal, da so Judje v koncentracijskih taboriščih res izmislili vojne zločine, ki so jih obtožili ‘Nazistov & #8217 od:

Ni pretirano, če rečem, da smo večino vse propagande Auschwitza, ki je bila takrat razširjena po vsem svetu, napisali sami v taborišču. To propagando [za] svetovno javnost smo izvajali do zadnjega dne prisotnosti v Auschwitzu. "

Ta psihiatrična raziskava orvelovskega britanskega ministrstva za informacije je bila tako uspešna, da 75 let kasneje velika večina javnosti še vedno verjame, da je ta vojna zločinska propaganda zgodovinska resnica.

People can even be shown these three above-mentioned independent witnesses that confirm the ‘Holocaust’ stories are 100% fiction, and yet most will still insist on believing that they are true.

In part because it’s far easier to convince someone of a lie that it is to convince someone that they’ve been lied to.

And people are terrified to confront the cold stark truth that the ‘innocent’ Jews intentionally fabricated the blood libel of the ‘Holocaust’ against the German people — and White European Christians in general — in order to cover up their own very real and documented crimes against humanity committed by their fellow jewish Bolsheviks — a death toll in excess of 60 million.

And Hitler’s great crime was trying to save Europe from these Bolshevik hordes.

But the Jews live in constant fear that if this truth ever spreads to the general public, there will be a great day of reckoning for them.

And they know they can’t keep this truth hidden indefinitely — thanks to the free internet, millions more are waking up with each passing year.

But they’ve invested far too much in the Holocaust ‘get out of jail free card’ to let it drop as they should instead they are doubling down, investing billions in Holocaust indoctrination programs in order to silence their critics.

Yet the younger, computer-savvy generations are far more skeptical — the Jews are losing the propaganda battle.

And the harder they fight ‘antisemitism’ with Holocaust ‘education’, the more ‘antisemtism they create.

Opomba: the best documentary film to demonstrate the homicidal depravity of the Bolshevik Army as it swept across eastern and central Europe on its way into Germany is Thomas Goodrich’s Hellstorm: The Death of Nazi Germany, which can be viewed here.


16 April 1944 - History

Inside his underground bunker Hitler lived in a world of fantasy as his "Thousand Year Reich" crumbled above him. In his final hours the Fuehrer married his long-time mistress and then joined her in suicide. The Third Reich was dead.

Dorothea von Schwanenfluegel was a twenty-nine-year-old wife and mother living in Berlin. She and her young daughter along with friends and neighbors huddled within their apartment building as the end neared. The city was already in ruins from Allied air raids, food was scarce, the situation desperate - the only hope that the Allies would arrive before the Russians. We join Dorothea's account as the Russians begin the final push to victory:

The radio announced that Hitler had come out of his safe bomb-proof bunker to talk with the fourteen to sixteen year old boys who had 'volunteered' for the 'honor' to be accepted into the SS and to die for their Fuhrer in the defense of Berlin. What a cruel lie! These boys did not volunteer, but had no choice, because boys who were found hiding were hanged as traitors by the SS as a warning that, 'he who was not brave enough to fight had to die.' When trees were not available, people were strung up on lamp posts. They were hanging everywhere, military and civilian, men and women, ordinary citizens who had been executed by a small group of fanatics. It appeared that the Nazis did not want the people to survive because a lost war, by their rationale, was obviously the fault of all of us. We had not sacrificed enough and therefore, we had forfeited our right to live, as only the government was without guilt. The Volkssturm was called up again, and this time, all boys age thirteen and up, had to report as our army was reduced now to little more than children filling the ranks as soldiers."

Encounter with a Young Soldier

"In honor of Hitler's birthday, we received an eight-day ration allowance, plus one tiny can of vegetables, a few ounces of sugar and a half-ounce of real coffee. No one could afford to miss rations of this type and we stood in long lines at the

Hitler's last public appearance
the Fuehrer inspects boy-soldiers
defending Berlin April 20, 1945
grocery store patiently waiting to receive them. While standing there, we noticed a sad looking young boy across the street standing behind some bushes in a self-dug shallow trench. I went over to him and found a mere child in a uniform many sizes too large for him, with an anti-tank grenade lying beside him. Tears were running down his face, and he was obviously very frightened of everyone. I very softly asked him what he was doing there. He lost his distrust and told me that he had been ordered to lie in wait here, and when a Soviet tank approached he was to run under it and explode the grenade. I asked how that would work, but he didn't know. In fact, this frail child didn't even look capable of carrying such a grenade. It looked to me like a useless suicide assignment because the Soviets would shoot him on sight before he ever reached the tank.

By now, he was sobbing and muttering something, probably calling for his mother in despair, and there was nothing that I could do to help him. He was a picture of distress, created by our inhuman government. If I encouraged him to run away, he would be caught and hung by the SS, and if I gave him refuge in my home, everyone in the house would be shot by the SS. So, all we could do was to give him something to eat and drink from our rations. When I looked for him early next morning he was gone and so was the grenade. Hopefully, his mother found him and would keep him in hiding during these last days of a lost war."

"The Soviets battled the German soldiers and drafted civilians street by street until we could hear explosions and rifle fire right in our immediate vicinity. As the noise got closer, we could even hear the horrible guttural screaming of the Soviet soldiers which sounded to us like enraged animals. Shots shattered our windows and shells exploded in our garden, and suddenly the Soviets were on our street. Shaken by the battle around us and numb with fear, we watched from behind the small cellar windows facing the street as the tanks and an endless convoy of troops rolled by.

It was a terrifying sight as they sat high upon their tanks with their rifles cocked, aiming at houses as they passed. The screaming, gun-wielding women were the worst. Half of the troops had only rags and tatters around their feet while others wore SS boots that had been looted from a conquered SS barrack in Lichterfelde. Several fleeing people had told us earlier that they kept watching different boots pass by their cellar windows. At night, the Germans in our army boots recaptured the street that the

A Soviet soldier raises the
Hammer & Sickle atop the Reichstag
Soviets in the SS boots had taken during the day. The boots and the voices told them who was who. Now we saw them with our own eyes, and they belonged to the wild cohorts of the advancing Soviet troops.

Facing reality was ten times worse than just hearing about it. Throughout the night, we huddled together in mortal fear, not knowing what the morning might bring. Nevertheless, we noiselessly did sneak upstairs to double check that our heavy wooden window shutters were still intact and that all outside doors were barricaded. But as I peaked out, what did I see! The porter couple in the apartment house next to ours was standing in their front yard waving to the Soviets. So our suspicion that they were Communists had been right all along, but they must have been out of their minds to openly proclaim their brotherhood like that.

As could be expected, that night a horde of Soviet soldiers returned and stormed into their apartment house. Then we heard what sounded like a terrible orgy with women screaming for help, many shrieking at the same time. The racket gave me goosebumps. Some of the Soviets trampled through our garden and banged their rifle butts on our doors in an attempt to break in. Thank goodness our sturdy wooden doors withstood their efforts. Gripped in fear, we sat in stunned silence, hoping to give the impression that this was a vacant house, but hopelessly delivered into the clutches of the long-feared Red Army. Our nerves were in shreds."

"The next morning, we women proceeded to make ourselves look as unattractive as possible to the Soviets by smearing our faces with coal dust and covering our heads with old rags, our make-up for the Ivan. We huddled together in the central part of the basement, shaking with fear, while some peeked through the low basement windows to see what was happening on the Soviet-controlled street. We felt paralyzed by the sight of these husky Mongolians, looking wild and frightening. At the ruin across the street from us the first Soviet orders were posted, including a curfew. Suddenly there was a shattering noise outside. Horrified, we watched the Soviets demolish the corner grocery store and throw its contents, shelving and furniture out into the street. Urgently needed bags of flour, sugar and rice were split open and spilled their contents on the bare pavement, while Soviet soldiers stood guard with their rifles so that no one would dare to pick up any of the urgently needed food. This was just unbelievable. At night, a few desperate people tried to salvage some of the spilled food from the gutter. Hunger now became a major concern because our ration cards were worthless with no hope of any supplies.

Shortly thereafter, there was another commotion outside, even worse than before, and we rushed to our lookout to see that the Soviets had broken into the bank and were looting it. They came out yelling gleefully with their hands full of German bank notes and jewelry from safe deposit boxes that had been pried open. Thank God we had withdrawn money already and had it at home."

Field Marshall Keitel signs the surender terms
at Russian headquarters, Berlin May 9, 1945
"The next day, General Wilding, the commander of the German troops in Berlin, finally surrendered the entire city to the Soviet army. There was no radio or newspaper, so vans with loudspeakers drove through the streets ordering us to cease all resistance. Suddenly, the shooting and bombing stopped and the unreal silence meant that one ordeal was over for us and another was about to begin. Our nightmare had become a reality. The entire three hundred square miles of what was left of Berlin were now completely under control of the Red Army. The last days of savage house to house fighting and street battles had been a human slaughter, with no prisoners being taken on either side. These final days were hell. Our last remaining and exhausted troops, primarily children and old men, stumbled into imprisonment. We were a city in ruins almost no house remained intact."

References:
Lawson, Dorothea von Schwanenfluegel, Laughter Wasn't Rationed (1999) Ryan, Cornelius, The Last Battle (1966).


Rwanda Genocide Timeline

The Rwandan kingdom (later Nyiginya Kingdom and Tutsi Monarchy) was founded between the 15th and 17th centuries CE.

European Impact: 1863–1959

1863: Explorer John Hanning Speke publishes "Journal of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile." In a chapter on Wahuma (Rwanda), Speke presents what he calls his "theory of conquest of inferior by superior races," the first of many races to describe the cattle-pastoralist Tutsi as a "superior race" to their partners the hunter-gatherer Twa and agriculturalist Hutu.

1894: Germany colonizes Rwanda, and with Burundi and Tanzania, it becomes part of German East Africa. The Germans ruled Rwanda indirectly through Tutsi monarchs and their chiefs.

1918: The Belgians assume control of Rwanda, and continue to rule through the Tutsi monarchy.

1933: The Belgians organize a census and mandate that everyone is issued an identity card classifying them as either Tutsi (approximately 14% of the population), Hutu (85%), or Twa (1%), based on the "ethnicity" of their fathers.

December 9, 1948: The United Nations passes a resolution which both defines genocide and declares it a crime under international law.

Rise of Internal Conflict: 1959–1993

November 1959: A Hutu rebellion begins against the Tutsis and Belgians, topple King Kigri V.

January 1961: The Tutsi monarchy is abolished.

July 1, 1962: Rwanda gains its independence from Belgium, and Hutu Gregoire Kayibanda becomes president-designate.

November 1963–January 1964: Thousands of Tutsi are killed and 130,000 Tutsi flee to Burundi, Zaire, and Uganda. All surviving Tutsi politicians in Rwanda are executed.

1973: Juvénal Habyarimana (an ethnic Hutu) takes control of Rwanda in a bloodless coup.

1983: Rwanda has 5.5 million people and is the most densely populated country in all of Africa.

1988: The RPF (Rwandan Patriotic Front) is created in Uganda, made up of the children of the Tutsi exiles.

1989: World coffee prices plummet. This significantly affects Rwanda's economy because coffee is one of its major cash crops.

1990: The RPF invade Rwanda, starting a civil war.

1991: A new constitution allows for multiple political parties.

July 8, 1993: RTLM (Radio Télévison des Milles Collines) begins broadcasting and spreading hate.

August 3, 1993: The Arusha Accords are agreed upon, opening government positions to both Hutu and Tutsi.

Genocide: 1994

April 6, 1994: Rwandan President Juvénal Habyarimana is killed when his plane is shot out of the sky. This is the official beginning of the Rwandan Genocide.

April 7, 1994: Hutu extremists begin killing their political opponents, including the prime minister.

April 9, 1994: Massacre at Gikondo - hundreds of Tutsis are killed in the Pallottine Missionary Catholic Church. Since the killers were clearly targeting only Tutsi, the Gikondo massacre was the first clear sign that a genocide was occurring.

April 15-16, 1994: Massacre at the Nyarubuye Roman Catholic Church - thousands of Tutsi are killed, first by grenades and guns and then by machetes and clubs.

April 18, 1994: The Kibuye Massacres. An estimated 12,000 Tutsis are killed after sheltering at the Gatwaro stadium in Gitesi. Another 50,000 are killed in the hills of Bisesero. More are killed in the town's hospital and church.

April 28-29: Approximately 250,000 people, mostly Tutsi, flee to neighboring Tanzania.

May 23, 1994: The RPF takes control of the presidential palace.

July 5, 1994: The French establish a safe zone in the southwest corner of Rwanda.

July 13, 1994: Approximately one million people, mostly Hutu, begin fleeing to Zaire (now called the Democratic Republic of the Congo).

mid-July 1994: The Rwanda Genocide ends when the RPF gains control of the country. The government pledges to implement the Arusha Accords and to build a multiparty democracy.

Aftermath: 1994 to the present

The Rwandan Genocide ended 100 days after it began with an estimated 800,000 people killed, but the aftermath of such hatred and bloodshed may take decades, if not centuries, from which to recover.

1999: The first local elections are held.

April 22, 2000: Paul Kagame is elected president.

2003: First post-genocide presidential and legislative elections.

2008: Rwanda becomes the first nation in the world to elect a majority of women MPs.


The Warsaw Uprising of 1944

The Warsaw Uprising lasted from August 1944 to October 1944. The Warsaw Uprising, led by General Tadeusz ‘Bor’ Komorowski, failed for a variety of reasons but it remains an inspirational story for a people under the rule of the Nazis since the invasion of Poland in 1939 and whom had suffered greatly as a result of the Holocaust.

Fueled with hope as a result of the rapidly advancing Russian Army, The Polish Underground Home Army decided to take on the might of the Germans in the Poland. Not unnaturally, they felt that their efforts would be helped by the Russians. Units from the Polish Home Army took on the Germans at Vilnynus, Lublin and Lvov. While the Russians attacked from the east, the Poles fought German forces to the west, effectively squeezing the German Army. In all three cities they gave the Russians valuable help. Buoyed by this success, the Home Army decided to do the same in Warsaw. However, here different circumstances occurred which were to have dire consequences for the uprising. The Germans had decided to make Warsaw a fortress city which would be defended at all costs in an effort to stem the advance of the Red Army.

General ‘Bor’ Komorowski had decided that the uprising would start at 05.00 on August 1st. He had about 40,000 soldiers at his disposal but only 2,500 had weapons. They faced a German force in the city that numbered 15,000 men. However, there were 30,000 German troops in the immediate vicinity of the city. Unlike the Polish Home Army, the Germans had tanks, planes and artillery at their disposal. Many were also battle-hardened troops from the Hermann Goering SS Panzer and Paratroop Division and the SS ‘Viking’ Panzer Division. They were in and near Warsaw to defend it against the Red Army. Therefore, when they found that they were needed to fight the Home Army, they were in no mood to be merciful.

Hitler had handed over the command of the German land forces in the east to General Guderian on July 21st 1944. He had done a great deal to strengthen the German forces around the city and he had put General Stahel of the Luftwaffe in specific charge of Warsaw. ‘Bor’ Komorowski believed that his Home Army would receive support from the Russians as whoever held Warsaw, held the most important communications centre on the River Vistula. The Poles in Warsaw had been rehearsing their plan for three years.

‘Bor’ (Komorowski’s code name) had one major advantage over the Germans. Those in his army were driven by the dream of driving the Germans out of Warsaw and Poland. However, he also had a number of crucial weaknesses that had to be catered for. He only had the most basic of weapons – typical infantry weaponry. However, far more important, the Home Army only had ammunition for seven days fighting. ‘Bor’ put his faith in the capture of German weapons and ammunition and in air drops by the Allies.

The very first day showed up the problems the Poles were to face. The operational orders for the units in Warsaw were issued at 06.30 on August 1st. However, local commanders did not receive them until the next day – 24 hours late – because of a curfew in the city.

German forces to the east of the Vistula were heavily engaged in fighting with the Russians. Therefore, when the Poles in Warsaw finally organised themselves, they found that they had the advantage in the city over the Germans. By the end of the first day of the uprising, the Germans had suffered many defeats within Warsaw. However, the Poles did not manage to critically erode German power in the city. By day five of the uprising, the Poles had captured many German weapons but their expenditure on ammunition meant that despite captured German weapons, the Poles were running short of ammunition. The Poles also lacked the necessary weapons to successfully attack well defended German emplacements within the city. In many cases, the attacks by the Poles on August 1st and 2nd, had taken the Germans by surprise but they had failed to sustain the impact of these attacks. Regardless of this, Hitler had reacted to the uprising by appointing SS Obergruppenführer Bach-Zelewski to be the commander of the German forces in Warsaw. Bach-Zelewski was an expert in fighting resistance movements behind the front line. Such an appointment made life for the Poles involved in the Warsaw uprising extremely difficult as Bach-Zelewski brought with him a dedicated team experienced in such warfare. By day five of the uprising, both sides had stabilised their positions. The Poles controlled three areas of the city, while the Germans controlled the rest. The Poles found it very difficult to communicate with themselves within the three separate sectors. It was decided on August 6th that the three sectors would have their own commander.

The Germans attacked the Polish Home Army positions with utmost ferocity. As the fighting had to include buildings being taken one-by-one, the Germans had sent many flame throwers to its troops there and Goliath tanks – mini-tanks that exploded when detonated and which were controlled by wire by the Germans so that they could position them as near to a target as they wanted without endangering their own lives. While the initial stages of the uprising had been successful (as the Poles had surprise on their side), they now had to fight an enemy fully equipped to deal with urban warfare.

The Germans fought to keep the Poles away from the banks of the River Vistula as they wanted to ensure that they could have no contact with the Red Army that was nearby. They had initially decided to blanket bomb Warsaw but realised that they could not do so as there were German defensive positions within the city centre itself. These were vital to the Germans as they split the attention of the Home Army – do you take on the Germans outside of the city or those in it, or split your forces?

In areas of Warsaw controlled by the Poles, the Germans simply used their air power to destroy such areas – including the use of incendiary bombs. While such areas were in disarray and while the Home Army’s units there were disorganised, the Germans moved forward. No prisoners were taken – civilian or otherwise – as the Germans assumed that all civilians could be members of the Home Army. Even those in makeshift hospitals were killed. As the German noose tightened around the city, those in the Home Army who were still alive, used something to their advantage that only those in the city could fully know about – the city’s sewers. Units of the Home Army that were trapped in certain areas (places such as the Old Town) knew that they could move away from the Germans by literally going underground. The photo above is of a statue in Warsaw that commemorates this – the Catholic priest is in memory of the help given to the Home Army by priests within the city. One of the grills just by the statue (but out of shot in the photo) is said to have been one of the ones used by the escaping men and women in the Home Army. Such routes could not be used to evacuate the badly wounded and Colonel Iranek-Osmecki who fought in the Uprising claims that the Germans soaked the wounded in petrol and burned them alive.

Right into September, the Home Army based its hope on receiving help from the Red Army that was nearing the Vistula River. It never came and the Polish Red Cross , on September 7th, tried to negotiate a ceasefire. They were given a few hours grace during September 8th and 9th and several thousand children and elderly were allowed to leave the city. Many in the city simply did not want to go as on September 10th, the Red Army had defeated what remained of the German Army on the east bank of the Vistula. They were literally on the banks of the river in certain places – opposite the heart of the city.

However, on September 14th and 15th the Germans sent fresh troops to the city centre and consolidated their positions on the west bank of the Vistula. The XXV Panzer Division had been sent to the city to finally defeat the Home Army. Their approach to the Home Army was as before – total ruthlessness. If a building was thought to contain members of the Home Army, it was simply destroyed with whoever was in it. When house-to-house searches took place, flame throwers were used. Building by building, the city was retaken by the Germans – and massive damage was done to it.

By the end of September, the Home Army was short of all supplies – food, fresh water ammunition etc and the city was being systematically destroyed. The Polish Red Cross negotiated with Bach-Zelewski and on October 2nd a ceasefire was announced. An act of surrender was signed the same day. Those in the city who had survived were moved out. Buildings that were left standing were destroyed after anything of value was taken to Berlin.

No-one is quite sure of casualties but Polish historians believe that 150,000 Poles died in the uprising. Bach-Zeleski claimed that 26,000 Germans were killed in the two months of the fighting.


Great Marianas 'Turkey Shoot' - WW2 Timeline (June 19th - 20th, 1944)

The Battle of the Philippine Sea (nicknamed the "Great Marianas Turkey Shoot" by American pilots) was the Japanese Navy's attempt to hold the Marianas Islands. It marked the five and final large-scale carrier-versus-carrier battle of the Pacific and resulted in heavy losses on the part of the Japanese - in men, planes and carriers. The Americans fielded 7 fleet carriers and 8 light carriers against the Japanese 5 fleet carriers and 4 light carriers. In all, 956 American aircraft were pitted against 750 Japanese Army and Navy aircraft (300 being land-based types) in what would become a decisive American victory of the war.

A massive American flotilla numbering over 500 ships reached Saipan on June 15th, 1944. Saipan was part of the Marianas Island chain just east of the Philippines and the Philippine Sea and southeast of Japan proper. Key to the force's success was in its carrier air group which was looking to draw an equally powerful enemy force out from hiding. The Japanese military committed to the advance and launched a large response in turn out of Japanese-held Philippines. In addition to the hundreds of carrier aircraft on hand through the IJN, hundreds more land-based aircraft from surrounding airfields were brought into play by way of the IJA. At any rate, the Japanese forces were outnumbered from the start.

The Americans maintained several advantages apart from numbers. Their pilots had garnered the necessary experience in dealing with Japanese airmen and radar support proved critical to ultimate success. Aerial patrol boats and floatplanes scanned the horizon mercilessly while submarines kept a watchful eye on the enemy's movements. The latter was the case in the IJN leaving the Philippines, giving ample time for the Americans to prepare.

The Japanese were first to strike on June 19th, 1944, launching a 68-strong strike group which was immediately picked up on Allied radar 150 miles away. The Japanese force was repelled with heavy losses, managing to land just one bomb on a US battleship (USS South Dakota) while losing 41 aircraft. The American response involved the famous and high-capable Grumman F6F hellcat fighter with its battery of six 0.50 caliber Browning heavy machine guns.

The first attack group had been immediately followed by a second and this numbering 107 aircraft. American fighter aircraft, as well as ship-based anti-aircraft gunfire, cut the Japanese force by 97 additional aircraft.

American submarines then went into action. USS Albacore engaged the aircraft carrier IJN Taiho with torpedoes and landing its fish successfully. USS Cavalla then loosed her torpedoes into the side of the carrier IJN Shokaku. While the damage was violent, the vessels maintained their stay until leaking vapors aboard ignited and developed several more catastrophic explosions which doomed both ships.

A flight of 47 enemy aircraft then followed the first and second waves to which 7 of were downed. This left the final assault wave - an 82-aircraft effort - to deliver a reasonable blow to the American fleet. Misdirected near American air bases, many were intercepted and shot down. Amazingly, only nine of these aircraft returned to their home carrier intact. Grumman F6F Hellcats, once again, ruled the day. At the end of the day, the Japanese counted 30 American aircraft against his own 346 losses. However, the statistics were not accurately reported and relayed, leaving Japanese commanders with a false assurance of their remaining inventory. The Japanese force (the main part still undetected by the Allies) removed itself from the battle to refuel and commence the assault the following day.

The Japanese force was spotted the following day (June 20th) and the American force made their way in pursuit. The IJN Hiyu was struck by two torpedoes and ultimately sank after an onboard explosion committed her to her fate. The IJN Zuikaku and IJN Chiyoda were also damaged in the assault. 65 enemy aircraft were destroyed against 20 American mounts. The victory was decisive for the Americans which utterly embarrassed and defeated the mighty Japanese Navy's air arm which early on in the war seemed invincible. The Battle of the Philippine Sea would be the last notable IJN aerial engagement of the war for the fleet was now forced to sail home and regroup.

In all, the Americans lost 123 aircraft while one battleship was damaged. 80 aircraft fell victim to night landings on the moving carriers during recovery or simply ran out of fuel forcing their pilots to ditch and await rescue. Comparatively, the Japanese suffered mightily with 3 fleet carriers sunk and 2 oil transports lost. However, it was in the 600+ aircraft that the IJN/IJA lost during the fighting that garnered the battle the nickname of "turkey shoot". Six other IJN vessels were damaged before retreating.


There are a total of (17) Great Marianas 'Turkey Shoot' - WW2 Timeline (June 19th - 20th, 1944) events in the Second World War timeline database. Vnosi so spodaj navedeni po naraščajočem datumu nastanka (od prvega do zadnjega). Za perspektivo so lahko vključeni tudi drugi vodilni in zaključni dogodki.

The 1st Mobile Fleet of the IJN meets up with the Japanese Southern Force west of the Philippines.

US amphibious assault elements arrive to take Saipan.

The first Japanese raid assaults US Task Force 58 through a combined force of IJN and IJA aircraft commitment. The American response nets 35 enemies in the first phase of the attack.

The second raid of arriving Japanese aerial strike force is identified and attacked by the Americans resulting in some 97 Japanese aircraft downed.

At 9:05am, the USS Albacore lands a fish into the side of the IJN Taiho aircraft carrier.

At 12:20pm, the USS Cavalla attack submarine hits the IJN Shokaku with torpedoes.

The third Japanese attack includes 47 aircraft which are met by 40 American fighters resulting in 7 enemies downed.

A fourth Japanese flight group of 49 aircraft is assailed by 27 American Hellcats netting 30 more Japanese targets.

At approximately 4:24pm, the carrier IJN Shokaku, suffering extensive damage from American warplanes, goes under.

Around 4:28pm, the carrier IJN Taiho joins the IJN Shokaku.

At 4:30pm, some 216 American aircraft are launched in response to the Japanese attacks.

American dive bomber aircraft successfully attack, and subsequently sink, the aircraft carrier IJN Hiyo.

The American aerial force claims another two IJN tanker vessels.

The aircraft carrier - IJN Zuikaku - takes heavy damage from American warplanes.

The aircraft carrier - IJN Chiyoda - takes heavy damage from American warplanes.

During the attack, American fighter pilots score a further 65 enemy aircraft.

By 8:45pm, the American attack shows a loss of 100 aircraft with 80 being lost to landing accidents at night or lack of fuel, forcing many airmen to ditch into the sea.

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Poglej si posnetek: German News 1944 (Januar 2022).